1623 in science
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- July 16 – Great conjunction of Jupiter and Saturn, the closest together the two planets will come until 2020.
- Apple orchard at Grönsö Manor in Sweden planted; it will still be productive into the 21st century.
- Wilhelm Schickard draws a calculating clock on a letter to Kepler. This will be the first of five unsuccessful attempts at designing a direct entry calculating clock in the 17th century (including the designs of Tito Burattini, Samuel Morland and René Grillet).
- June 19 – Blaise Pascal, French mathematician and physicist (died 1662)
- July 12 – Elizabeth Walker, English pharmacist (born 1690)
- August 26 – Johann Sigismund Elsholtz, German naturalist and physician (died 1688)
- September 1 – Caspar Schamberger, German surgeon and merchant (died 1706)
- September 23 – Georg Balthasar Metzger, German physician and scientist (died 1687)
- October 9 – Ferdinand Verbiest, Flemish Jesuit Sinologist and astronomer (died 1688)
- Margaret Lucas, later Margaret Cavendish, Duchess of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, English natural philosopher (died 1673)
- May 26 – Francis Anthony, English apothecary and physician (born 1550)
- December 24 – Michiel Coignet, Flemish engineer, cosmographer, mathematician and scientific instrument-maker (born 1549)
- Hunt, Jeffrey L. (2020-02-20). "1623: The Great Conjunction of Jupiter and Saturn". When the Curves Line Up. Retrieved 2020-12-05. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)
- Ferrand, Jacques. Maladie d'amour, ou Mélancolie érotique.
- "Margaret Cavendish". The British Library. Retrieved 26 March 2019. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link)